There are 3 nutrients that provide energy which your body uses, the energy they release are measured in kilo joules / calories.
– Carbs (4 kcal / gram)
Carbohydrate molecules include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides and polysaccharides (starch).
Nutritionally, polysaccharides are favored over monosaccharides because they are more complex and therefore take longer to break down and be absorbed into the bloodstream; this means that they do not cause major spikes in blood sugar levels, which are linked to heart and vascular diseases.
– Proteins (4 kcal / gram)
Protein helps our bodies build and repair after injury and help us fight infections
There are 20 amino acids – organic compounds found in nature that combine to form proteins. Some amino acids are essential, meaning they need to be consumed. Other amino acids are non-essential because the body can make them. Proteins are the building stones of muscle tissue.
– Fats (9 kcal / gram)
Fats are required in a healthy lifestyle as they serve many functions, including lubricating joints, helping organs produce hormones, assisting in absorption of certain vitamins, reducing inflammation, and preserving brain health.
Fats also give energy and help us feel full after eating a meal.
Fats are triglycerides – three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Fatty acids are simple compounds (monomers) while triglycerides are complex molecules (polymers).
Important note: When consumed in excess (incl alcohol (7 kcal / gram) the above will be stored in your body for later use. If excess exceeds even more, they will be stored as FAT!!!!